Prefixes, Suffixes, & Roots

Handouts > Reading Skills > Prefixes, Suffixes, & Roots

PREFIXES 

Prefix
a-, an-
ab-
ad-
ante-
anti-
arch-
auto-
be-
bene-
bi-
circum-
con-
  col-
  cor-
  co-
contra-
counter-
de-
di-
di-
dia-
dif-
dis-
en-
epi-
equi-
ex-, e-
extra-
hetero-
homo-
hyper-
hypo-
in-
  im-
  il-
  ir-
inter-
intra-
intro-
macro-
mal-
mega-
micro-
mini-
mis-
mono-
multi-
neo
non-
ob-
pan-
para-
pen-
per-
peri-
poly-
post-
pre-
pro-
proto-
re-
retro-
se-
semi-
simil-
sub-
super-
sur-
syn-, sym-
tele-
trans-
tri-
ultra-
un-
uni-
vice-

@
Meaning
not
away from
toward, to
before, in front of
against, opposite
chief, prime
self
to cause, intensely
well
two
around, on all sides
with
with
with
with
against, opposite
against, opposite
not, away from, down from
apart, away, not
twice fold, double
through, completely
apart, away, not
apart, away, not
make, create
above, around, additional
equal
out from, former
outside, beyond
different
same
extremely
below, beneath
into, not
into, not
into, not
into, not
between, at intervals
within
motion inward
large
ill, badly, bad, wrong
big
small
small, little
wrong, wrongly, not
single, one
many
new
not
against
all, whole, completely
beyond, outside, near
almost
motion through, thoroughly
around, about, enclosing
many
behind, after
before, earlier, in front of
forward, before, in favor of
earliest, first, original
back, again
backwards
aside, apart
half, partly
like
under, below
over, above, extra
above, additional
together
distant
across, over, through, beyond
three
beyond, excessively
not
one
one who takes the place of another

@
Example
amoral, apathy, asexual, a typical
abnormal, absent
advance, adapt, adhere
anteroom, antecedent
antiwar, antisocial, antirust
arch-criminal, archenemy, archbishop
automatic, automobile, autobiography
befriend, beware, befool
benefit, benefactor
bicycle, biweekly, bigamy
circumstance, circumvent
connect, conversation, concentrate
collage, collapse, colleague, collect
correct, correspond, corrival
co-worker, co-exist, co-author, co-education
contrary, contradict
encounter, counteract
depart, descend, decay
diminish, divorce, diverge
dilemma
dialogue, diameter, diaper, diagram
differ, difficult
discover, distrust, disorder, disinterested
enable, engage, enlarge, enrich
epidemic
equivalent
exit, extract, exclude, export, ex-boyfriend
extraordinary, extravagant, extracurricular
heterogeneous, heterosexual
homogeneous, homosexual
hyperactive, hypercorrect
hypocrisy, hypodermic
invade, inner, incorrect, inactive, indirect
immigrate, import, impractical, immoral
illegal, illiterate
irrational, irregular, irresponsibility
interact, interview, international,
intrastate, intracellular
introduce, introvert, introspective
macroeconomic, macrocosm, macrobiotic
malfunction, malnutrition
megaton, megastore, megaphone
microphone, microscope
minivan, miniskirt, minimal
misspell, misunderstand, mistake, misplace
monocycle, monopoly
multiple, multitude
neoclassic, neonate
none, nonstop, nonsense, nonprofit
object, obstruct
Pan African, pandemic
paramedic, paradox
peninsula, penultimate
perfect, perceive
perimeter, periscope
polygamy, polyglot
postpone, postscript, posterity
predict, prepare, preconceived
proceed, progress, propose
prototype, protocol
return, reappear, remind, Renaissance
retroactive, retrospect
secede, seclusion
semiconductor, semiannual
similar, simile
subway, submarine, subnormal
supernatural, superior
surface, survey
symphony, sympathy
telegraph, telephone, telescope, telepathy
transition, transcend, transfer
triple, triangle
ultraviolet, ultraliberal
unimportant, unattractive, unable, unfair
uniform, unique
vice-president, vice-consul

@

NOUN SUFFIXES

Suffix
-ance, -ence
-ancy, -ency
-age

-ant, -ent
-ar
-ary, -ory,
  -ery, -ry
-dom
-ee
-eer
-er
-ess
-hood
-ian
-ics
-ion, -ation
  -sion, -tion
-ism
-ist
-ity
-ment
-ness
-ocracy
-or
-ship
@
Meaning
act of
state of
action, condition
collection
one who, that which
one who
one who, place where
study of
domain, condition of
one who is
one who
one who
one who (female)
state of
one who
science, art or practice of
state, action,
institution
doctrine, point of view
one who, believer
state, quality
state, quality, act of
state of
system style of government
one who
state, condition
@
Example
attendance, acceptance, reliance, difference
vacancy, hesitancy, consistency, presidency
message, marriage,
baggage, postage
participant, stimulant, student, president
liar, beggar
secretary, library, dormitory, factory
bakery, chemistry, history
kingdom, freedom, wisdom
employee, refugee, absentee
engineer, mountaineer
teacher, farmer, painter, receiver
actress, poetess, lioness
childhood, boyhood, likelihood
musician, librarian, beautician
economics, mathematics, physics, electronics
procession, exploration, foundation
organization, competition
idealism, socialism
dentist, socialist, cyclist
humidity, elasticity
argument, amazement, payment
happiness, sickness, fullness
democracy, autocracy
actor, governor, inspector
friendship, membership, hardship
@

ADJECTIVE SUFFIXES

Suffix
-able, -ible
-al
-ary, ory
-ed
-en
-ful
-ic
-ish
-ive
-less
-like
-ly
-oid
-ous
-ward

@
Meaning
capable of
like, pertaining to
connected with, engaged in
covered with, affected by
made of, resembling
full of, having
like, pertaining to
like, pertaining to
like, pertaining to
without
having the qualities of
having the qualities of
like, resembling
like, pertaining to
manner, position

@
Example
visible, readable, edible, capable
criminal, practical, musical, natural
primary, secondary, ordinary
wooded, blessed, clothed
wooden, golden
useful, hopeful, careful, successful
specific, democratic
childish, foolish, selfish
active, sensitive, explosive
harmless, hopeless, careless, speechless
childlike, statesmanlike
worldly, lively, manly, slowly
humanoid, spheroid
ambitious, courageous
awkward, backward, forward

@

ADVERB SUFFIXES

Suffix
-ly
-ward (s)
-wise
@
Meaning
in a __ manner
direction of movement
in the manner of,  as far as __ is concerned
@
Example
happily, strangely
backward(s), earthward, homeward
clockwise, likewise, otherwise
education-wise, weather-wise
@

VERB SUFFIXES

Suffix
-ate
-en
-ify
-ize

@
Meaning
to cause, to make
to become, to make
to cause, to make
to cause, to make
@
Example
irritate, indicate, elongate
widen, darken, ripen, brighten
justify, beautify, simplify
civilize, realize

@

ROOTS

Root
agr
anthro
aqua
astro
aud
biblio
bio
celer
chronos
cap, capt, cip
cep, cept, ceive
ced, cess, cede
cid
clud, clus
cosmo
crat
cred
cur, curr
demo
dict
duc, duct
fac, fact
fec, fect
fer
fic, fict
flect
frater
fund, fus
gen, gener
geo
glot
gram
graph
gress, grad
hydra
ject,jact
jud
lect, leg
logo, log, logy
loq, loc
manu, mani
mar
mater
med
min
mit, mis
mort
mot, mob, mo
naut
necro
neuro
nom
nomo
pater
patho
ped, pod
Root
pend
philo
phobo
phone
photo
plex, pli, ply
plic
poli
port
pos, pon
psych
reg, rect
rupt
scop
scrib, scrip
soph
sta, stat
stit, sist
tact, tang
ten, tain, tin
tend, tens, tent
typo
vacu
ven
ven
voca
vora
pend
philo
phobo
phone
photo
plex, pli, ply
plic
poli
port
pos, pon
psych
reg, rect
rupt
scop
scrib, scrip
soph
sta, stat
stit, sist
tact, tang
ten, tain, tin
tend, tens, tent
typo
vacu
ven
ven
voca
vora
@
Meaning
field, farm
man
water
star
hear
book
life
speed, hasten
time
take
take
go, move along
kill
close, shut
world
power
believe, trust
run
people
say
lead
make, do
make, do
carry, bear
make, do
bend
brother
pour
birth, race
earth
tongue
written
write
go, step
water
throw
judgment
read, choose
study
speak
hand
sea
mother
middle
smaller, less
send, let go
death
move, start
sailor
death
nerve
name
knowledge, law
father
suffering, ill
foot
Meaning
hang, weigh
love
fear
sound, voice
light
fold
fold
city
carry
place, put
of the mind
rule, manage
break
watch, look at
write
wise
stand
to set up, establish
touch
hold, keep
stretch, weaken
image
empty
love
come
call
eat, devour
hang, weigh
love
fear
sound, voice
light
fold
fold
city
carry
place, put
of the mind
rule, manage
break
watch, look at
write
wise
stand
to set up, establish
touch
hold, keep
stretch, weaken
image
empty
love
come
call
eat, devour
@
Example
agriculture, agronomy
anthropology, anthropoid
aquarium, aqueduct, aquatic
astronomy, astrology, astronaut
audience, auditorium, audio
bibliography, bibliophile
biology, biography, biotic
accelerate, celerity
chronology, chronicle
capture, captive, recipient
accept, reception, conceive, deceive
exceed, proceed, succeed, success, access
suicide, excise, genocide
conclude, include, seclude
cosmopolitan, cosmonaut
autocrat, democrat
credit, incredible
current, incur
democracy, demography
dictate, contradict,
induce, educate, conduct
factory, manufacture
effect, infect
transfer, ferry, offer
fiction, simplification
flexible, inflection
fraternity, fraternal
effusive, refund
generation, gender, generate
geography, geology
glottal, polyglot
program, telegram, grammar
autograph, biography, paragraph
progress, grade
hydrant, dehydrate
abject, inject, object, rejection
judge, judicial
lecture, select, collect, elect, legend
logic, biology, anthropology
eloquent, soliloquy, locution
manuscript, manufacture, manifest
submarine, mermaid, maritime
maternity
medium, intermediate
minute, minor, minimum, diminish
transmit, admit, missile, mission
mortal, mortician
motor, motive, mobile, move, remove
astronaut, nautical
necrology, necromancer, necropolis
neurology, neuropathy
nominate, nominal
autonomy, astronomy
paternal, patriotic
sympathy, pathetic, pathology
pedal, peddle, pedestrian, tripod
Example
depend, suspend
philosophy, bibliophile, philanthropy
acrophobia, hydrophobia
telephone, microphone, symphony
photograph
complexity, complicate
complicate, duplicate
politician, metropolis
import, sport, transport, portable
postpone, position
psychology, psychiatrist
regulate, region, direct, correct
bankrupt, corrupt, interrupt
telescope, microscope
describe, manuscript, subscribe
philosophy, sophomore, sophisticated
status, station, stable
insist, institute
contact, attach, tangible,
contain, detain, maintain,
extend, intend, extent
typical, typewriter
vacuum, evacuate, vacant
Venus, venereal
prevent, convene
vocal, evoke, advocate
devour, voracious
depend, suspend
philosophy, bibliophile, philanthropy
acrophobia, hydrophobia
telephone, microphone, symphony
photograph
complexity, complicate
complicate, duplicate
politician, metropolis
import, sport, transport, portable
postpone, position
psychology, psychiatrist
regulate, region, direct, correct
bankrupt, corrupt, interrupt
telescope, microscope
describe, manuscript, subscribe
philosophy, sophomore, sophisticated
status, station, stable
insist, institute
contact, attach, tangible,
contain, detain, maintain,
extend, intend, extent
typical, typewriter
vacuum, evacuate, vacant
Venus, venereal
prevent, convene
vocal, evoke, advocate
devour, voracious
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